The poll's timing was far from coincidental. Funding for the Highway Trust Fund is running short, and lawmakers need to take action before their summer recess to keep it solvent. The fund is currently supported by a tax of 18.4 cents per gallon on gasoline and a tax of 24.4 cents per gallon on diesel. Congress hasn't raised the tax since 1993, despite the average cost of fuel basically tripling since then.
Read More700,000 jobs at risk if Highway Trust Fund falters
AAA suggests that the state of U.S. roadways already serves as a tax, of sorts, estimating the average motorist puts out about $324 annually for vehicle repairs related to bad roads. Other studies have indicated that commuters must spend more time behind the wheel, while transportation costs for consumer goods also rise as a result of slower speeds, detours and other delays.
In addition to respondents' willingness to spend more, the AAA study also found 51 percent were more likely to vote for a member of Congress who supports increased spending on transportation. That compares to just 19 percent who said they'd be less likely to support a lawmaker who took that step.
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Darbelnet said Americans are "fed up" with the state of the nation's roads and the "political inaction" that has blocked needed repairs,
"It is time for our nation's leaders to stand with those in Congress who support improving our country's transportation system," he said.
The AAA study was based on responses from more than 2,000 Americans over the age of 18.
—By CNBC Contributor Paul A. Eisenstein. Follow him on Twitter@DetroitBureau or at thedetroitbureau.com.