The state has come under fire from critics, notably New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, who told the local radio station 101.5, "Go to Colorado and see if you wanna live there. Headshops popping up on every corner, and people flying in just to get high. To me it's just not the quality of life we want to have here in the state of New Jersey, and there's no tax revenue worth that."
Colorado, which came in No. 8 in CNBC's Top States for Business 2014, collected about $2 million in marijuana taxes in January, the first month the law was in effect.
Read MoreAmerica's top states for business
Hickenlooper said the state is conducting vigorous background checks for everyone connected in the sale of pot. His main concern is keeping it away from children.
"Early indications are we don't see a sudden spike in kids using it, or in parents," he said. "We're very worried about it, but so far the regulations seem to be doing well."
To that end, the governor is looking to educate the public about the effects of high-THC marijuana on kids by rolling out a full-blown advertising campaign.
Read MoreColorado approves first pot banking system
"Now it's legal, they think it's harmless," he said. However, he noted that studies show that smoking high-THC pot can potentially diminish long-term memory of children and accelerate the onset of symptoms of schizophrenia and severe bipolar disorder.
“We’re taking it very seriously,” Hickenlooper said.
—By CNBC's Michelle Fox