Other Middle East watchers, however, said a deal could improve historically negative relationships in the region as Iran engages in trade with its neighbors.
While Iran's trade partnerships have been shifting toward Asia in light of Western sanctions, a nuclear deal could boost its trade relationship with the West, an official with the World Bank told CNBC.
"If there's no sanctions, there's no reason why the members of the EU would not buy Iranian oil," said Shantayanan Devarajan, chief economist of the World Bank's Middle East and North Africa region.
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A deal could open the door for the new Iranian government to change the country's relationships within the Middle East "that in the long term, may bear much economic fruit," said professor of history at the CUNY Graduate Center Simon Davis.
Specifically, the United Arab Emirates could re-establish itself as a major trading hub with Iran—a status it held prior to sanctions. Turkey could see an increase in trade with Iran, since Turkey has little oil. The two countries share a border.
But before any economic benefits accrue, countries in the region have to overcome long-running mistrust of Iran.
"Much like Saudi Arabia, I think the UAE is more scared of an emboldened Iran seeking regional hegemony than it is starting new business with them," said Misztal.