Fears over a Russian intervention in Ukraine and a Chinese slowdown sent traders to the Swiss franc and Japanese yen.
Putin's war games in Ukraine and a government report showing new housing sales at five-year highs both boosted the greenback on Wednesday.
The dollar fell against a basket of major currencies after soft U.S. consumer confidence data drove bond yields lower.
The dollar lost its safe haven bounce as risk appetite improved amid expectations that Ukraine would receive international aid.
U.S. data this week will continue to reflect the impact of extreme weather, presenting a downside risk for the U.S. dollar.
The National Association of Realtors delivered some bad news, sending the euro back up against the dollar.
A still fragile outlook for the European economy and strong US economic growth helped push the greenback up.
The dollar was steady ahead of Janet Yellen's testimony in Congress, while Norway's crown jetted almost 1 percent higher.
Global currency markets trod water ahead of interest rate decisions in Britain and the euro zone on Thursday.
The yen gained on Wednesday, as struggles in stock markets and the emerging markets forced investors to seek safe-haven currencies.
The Australian dollar surged almost two percent on Tuesday after moves from the country's central bank dropped.
The euro was soft on Monday as investors thought it more likely the European Central Bank would have to ease policy to combat slowing inflation.
The euro fell as soft euro zone inflation data rekindled concerns the ECB may have to act to combat deflation, while the dollar gained.
The dollar rose against a basket of currencies on Thursday after data showed the US economy produced solid growth in the fourth quarter.
Several analysts see an upside for Russia to the emerging market rout, seeing it as "easy money" for the government's coffers.
The yen rose against the dollar, suggesting emergency action to stabilize Turkey would not be enough to quell nerves over emerging markets.
The dollar regained a firmer footing against the yen on Tuesday as investors took a breather from a sell-off of stocks and emerging market assets.
Safe-haven currencies like the yen and the Swiss franc were much in demand on Monday as an emerging markets sell-off continued.
The yen, Swiss franc and euro charged higher amid worries about a China slowdown and turmoil in some emerging markets.
Sterling rose to an almost three-year high against the dollar on growing expectations that the BoE will raise interest rates sooner.