The loss of investors will cost SAC dearly and most likely will force it to reduce its staff of more than 1,000 employees. SAC, which is based in Stamford, Conn., pays for its large infrastructure by charging its investors some of the most expensive annual fees in the industry — as much as a 3 percent management fee and 50 percent of the profits. It commands those fees because of its nearly unparalleled investment track record, posting returns that have averaged nearly 30 percent a year over the last two decades.
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While Mr. Cohen's investors have benefited from the superior performance, so have the Wall Street brokerage firms that have catered to Mr. Cohen's firm. The main reason, they say, boils down to one word: leverage. To juice its investment returns, SAC borrows heavily from banks, which earn big fees on the loans. The fund borrows, on average, about $3 for every dollar in the fund. At $15 billion managed, SAC had a staggering $45 billion in buying power.
People close to Mr. Cohen said that without outside investors, he would most likely run the business more conservatively and substantially reduce his borrowings.
SAC's billions of dollars in buying power, combined with the fund's aggressive trading style, have made it one of the top commission payers on Wall Street. Several executives said that the firm is a top trading client at most of the large banks, including Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, paying out several hundred million dollars a year in stock trading commissions annually. The fund is also a highly profitable and important customer for the banks because it is among the most active buyers of the lucrative initial public offerings and secondary offerings that they underwrite.
(Read More: SAC Capital Braces for $3.5 Billion in Redemptions)
"In these soft years for stocks, where margins have grown very thin, trading volume has become the lifeblood of the brokerage business," said Matt Samelson, principal at Woodbine Associates, a capital markets consulting and research firm. "When you've got a major player like SAC either going away or downsizing, this just erodes the trading volume that the big Wall Street firms have been fighting so hard to get."
Other areas of the large banks that generate big revenue from SAC are the so-called prime brokerage units, which provide a number of services to hedge funds, including lending money, clearing trades and introducing them to prospective investors. Most hedge funds use one or two prime brokers, but SAC has historically spread the wealth around, employing at least five, including Credit Suisse and JPMorgan Chase.
Wall Street officials note that despite the prospective loss in business, there are a number of silver linings. The impact of a diminished SAC would be buffered by the fact that Mr. Cohen would continue to manage billions of dollars. Another potential positive is that, should the fund reduce its head count, a number of leading SAC portfolio managers would be expected to start their own firms. The concern, however, was that their affiliation with SAC, whose reputation has been stained by the insider trading scandals, could hurt them in raising money.
—By Peter Lattman of The New York Times