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2. Metal

In additive manufacturing of metals, lasers are used to weld metallic powder into structures. In other applications, spools of metal wires are beaded into shapes. No longer reliant on shapes that conventional machines stamp out, precision-casting companies can make complex shapes that previously weren't possible.

Years from now, cars and other modes of transportation could be manufactured more cheaply and more quickly and domestically via 3-D printing. General Electric recently announced a design contest in which participants create a 3-D-printable design for an aircraft engine bracket.

Heesun Wee | CNBC