The deal provides a ceasefire in the budget wars that have consumed Washington since Republicans won control of the House in 2010 on a promise to cut spending.
It gives lawmakers on the appropriations committees $1.012 trillion to spend, splitting the difference between the House and the Democratic-controlled Senate.
It's not clear how that money will be divided.
Lobbyists say they expect it will be split evenly between military and domestic programs, with the money being distributed proportionately between the 12 subcommittees that each oversee a portion of the government.
But they're not likely to learn much more than that over the coming weeks as lawmakers will try to keep their work as private as possible, said Jim Dyer, a longtime Republican appropriations staffer who now works as a lobbyist.
"If a decision gets out, there'll be five people to preserve it and 10 people to overthrow it. You have to be very careful about the information that goes out in the public domain at this time," he said.
Congress hasn't written proper spending laws for most domestic programs since December 2011, opting instead to fund wide swaths of the government under continuing resolutions that freeze operations in place.
A chance for new initiatives
As a result, new initiatives have been put on hold.
Among them, for example, is a plan that would use advanced molecular-identification techniques to identify and isolate outbreaks of food poisoning, influenza or other public health threats more quickly.
Obama requested $40 million for the program this spring, and the Senate approved spending for half that amount in the summer.
(Read more: Budget provision could help curb some identify theft)
Lobbyist Peter Kyriacopoulos brought in state and local public health workers to pitch the program to lawmakers in March, and he's following up with phone calls to staffers now. But he says it may be tough to convince Republicans to sign off on new spending.
"The House has been operating in a very unique way, so we go in and say what we can and we hope for the best," he said. "But no one's told me to go away," he said.
Others are more optimistic. Armed with figures that show how many patients in each congressional district have been unable to get treatment due to the sequester cuts, David Pugach of the American Cancer Society has been pressing appropriators to restore medical research funding at the National Institutes of Health to its pre-sequester level.
"When appropriators are making decisions based on what they say is most important, funding for cancer research and prevention should be at the top of that list and in all likelihood would do rather well," he said.
As the sequester forced sharp cutbacks in the Head Start early childhood education program, backers across the country ensured the cuts were covered in local media and pressured lawmakers to restore funding. Hopefully, that will have generated enough momentum to restore the $400 million that has been cut, said Yasmina Vinci of the National Head Start Association.
"Our first, biggest, most glaring priority is restoring the cuts that happened," she said. "I'm hoping we have done our work."