Adding to the euro's problems was a much softer-than-expected reading of French inflation, which kept alive risks of deflation in the euro zone.
The French PMI data came in well below forecasts while German figures that did little to counter worries that the euro zone economy will need more stimulus from the European Central Bank.
Highlighting some of the choppiness that the euro could face in the near term, one-month euro/dollar implied volatility—a gauge of how sharp swings will be - edged up to 6.4 percent, climbing from a six-year low struck earlier this week.
Strong U.S. economic data released Thursday supported the dollar's gains versus the euro.
The Labor Department reported that initial claims for unemployment benefits declined by 3,000 last week to a seasonally adjusted 336,000. The decline pointed to steadily improving labor market conditions despite two straight months of weak hiring.
In a separate report, the Labor Department said strong gains in the price of household energy had accounted for most of a 0.1 percent rise in the Consumer Price Index in January.
U.S. manufacturing activity, meanwhile, accelerated in February at its fastest pace in nearly four years due in part to growth in new orders, financial data firm Markit said.
Dollar rebounds against yen
The euro's drop helped the dollar recover against a basket of currencies. The dollar index was trading 0.3 percent higher on the day at 80.368.
The dollar also turned positive against the Japanese yen and was last trading up 0.06 percent at 102.370.
The other big loser was the Australian dollar, hurt by an HSBC survey that showed activity in China's factories shrank again in February as employment fell at the fastest pace in five years.
The Aussie, which closely tracks the economic fortunes of China, shed 0.3 percent to just below US$0.90.
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