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Mexico

Patients Beyond Borders estimates that between 200,000 and 1.1 million patients headed to Mexico for treatment in 2013. The broad range is due to the many undocumented Hispanics living in the states of California, Arizona and Texas who return to Mexico for treatment. What is known is that the country benefits from its proximity to the U.S., with more than 50,000 Americans crossing the border each year purely for dental work, according to Patients Beyond Borders.

Mexico also specializes in weight loss treatment and surgery. Cities near the U.S. border, like Monterrey, Tijuana and Juarez, boast hospitals which offer weight-management programs to obese Americans — at 40-70 percent of the cost of treatment at home, according to Patients Beyond Borders.

(Read more: The best place for private equity? Healthcare)

Patients Beyond Borders