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Seven in 10 people say Obamacare had bad or zero impact on US

The White House in the past month has been crowing about Obamacare's success, but the public...uhhh, not so much.

More than 7 out of every 10 Americans says Obamacare has had a mostly negative effect overall on the country, or thinks the landmark health-care reform law has not had much of an impact, a new Bankrate.com survey released Wednesday found.

A total of 43 percent of respondents said they believe the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has had a primarily negative effect on the United States. Another 21 percent said the ACA has not had much effect on the country.

Just 28 percent of respondents said Obamacare has had a mostly positive impact on the U.S., according to the survey, which questioned 1,000 adults. That was the first time the personal finance publisher had asked that question in a survey.

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"These findings indicate that more than 7 in 10 Americans don't feel like Obamacare has been worth it," said Bankrate.com insurance analyst Doug Whiteman.

"Despite this law moving forward, there seems to be some deeply entrenched and rather strong opposition," Whiteman said. "It doesn't seem like there's a lot of good news for the Obama administration. They still have a lot of work to [do to] win people over."

But the survey also found that the percentage of Americans who lack health insurance was just 11 percent, the lowest rate since Bankrate began asking that question last August. Last summer, 15 percent of respondents reported not having health insurance, Whiteman said.

Read MoreRetire early due to Obamacare? Maybe not

And 23 percent of respondents who had employer-sponsored health insurance told Bankrate that they are more likely to retire early or otherwise leave their jobs because of aspects of Obamacare that dilute the advantage of job-linked coverage. Just 8 percent said they were less likely to leave their employer as a result.

The Congressional Budget Office earlier this year predicted that the equivalent of 2.5 million jobs could disappear by 2024 as a result of people leaving the workforce or reducing hours worked due to Obamacare's effects.

The public's generally negative or neutral view the ACA's impact as measured by the survey comes weeks after the White House proudly announced that more than 8 million people had enrolled in Obamacare individual insurance plans sold on the government-run health exchanges. That was 1 million above original projections made for the plans, which take effect for the first time this year.

In addition to those plans, which are often subsidized by the government, Obamacare bars insurers from discriminating against people with pre-existing medical conditions, mandates that plans cover a set of "essential health benefits" at no extra out-of-pocket cost and allows states to expand Medicaid eligibility to all poor adults. The law also mandates that people under age 26 be allowed to be stay on their parents' insurance.

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The health-exchange sold plans, as well as similar policies sold outside the exchanges and expanded Medicaid eligibility, have been credited with pushing the uninsured rate of Americans to record low levels.

But Whitman said those benefits apparently haven't been enough to overcome overall persistent negative public opinion about the ACA, which has also been found in other polls besides those of Bankrate.

A Bankrate survey last month found that 45 percent of respondents said they believed Obamacare should be repealed; 44 percent said it should be maintained.

"I think that the law has never really recovered from the bungled rollout of the health exchanges," said Whiteman, referring to the botched performance of the federally run HealthCare.gov and several of state Obamacare exchanges when they launched last fall. Since then, HealthCare.gov has been repaired and performed well in the last five months of operation, as did a slight majority of the 14 state-run exchanges.

Whiteman also said the continued "negative political messages" by ACA opponents, particularly House Republicans who have repeatedly tried without success to gut Obamacare, "has to be having an impact on people's opinions."

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Bankrate's study found that people who earned more than $50,000 annually were most inclined to have negative feelings about Obamacare's effect on the country. However, people making $30,000 or less were inclined to be positive about the law.

When asked about Obamacare's effect on their own lives compared to last year, 52 percent said they felt it was about he same. But among the rest of the respondents, people who felt more negative about how Obamacare directly affected them since last year outnumbered those who felt positively "by about 2 to 1," Whiteman said.

Bankrate also questioned respondents for the first time about a still-small, but growing trend of companies moving workers out of employer-provided health insurance and into individual plans sold on private exchanges, which are similar to the government-run Obamacare markets.

Earlier this month, Standard & Poor's Capital IQ estimated that 90 percent of S&P 500 companies could move their workers toward such private exchanges by 2020, saving an estimated $689 billion in costs in the process.

And the same report found the potential for a stunning $3.25 trillion in savings if all companies with 50 or more employees made such a move.

Most large companies that shifted workers to private exchanges continue subsidizing, in some way, the cost of health coverage, while offering workers increased options in number of plans and level of coverage.

Bankrate said 30 percent of respondents believed such a shift toward private exchanges would have a negative impact. Just 14 percent said it would be a positive move.

—By CNBC's Dan Mangan

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