Mr. Tovar, asked if any of the eight high-level executives left because of the corruption scandals, declined to issue a blanket denial. Instead, he said, they left for a variety of reasons and pointed to the originally stated explanations for their departures. The company has not said that any of these executives left because of the scandals.
Mr. Rodríguezmacedo, the former general counsel of Walmart's Mexican division, who was said to have authorized the paying of bribes, stepped down from his role as general counsel in April 2012, only days before The Times's article was published. He was reassigned, and a year later, he left the company altogether.
In an email, Mr. Rodríguezmacedo, who has since founded a law firm in Mexico City that specializes in wealth and estate planning, said he left Walmart of his own accord.
"I voluntarily resigned from Walmart to engage in private practice," he wrote. "I acted at all times in compliance with the law and Walmart's policies."
Another executive, Eduardo Castro-Wright, a vice chairman of the company who had run the Mexican division and was featured prominently in the Times report, retired shortly after the article was published. But the announcement that he planned to retire was issued many months beforehand. Mr. Castro-Wright's lawyer, Daniel S. Ruzumna, declined to comment.
Mr. Mars declined to comment on the circumstances surrounding his departure.
Mr. Tovar explicitly denied, however, that the investigation had affected two company executives: Mr. Scott and Mr. Duke.
"One of the questions you might have is, 'Is that a result of the F.C.P.A. investigation?' " Mr. Tovar said of their decisions to leave their respective roles. "And I would tell you no."
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Mr. Tovar said that Mr. Scott was leaving the board because the company preferred to have only one former chief executive on the board at a time, and that post is now filled by Mr. Duke, who Mr. Tovar said was retiring after a long career.
Ushering employees out the back door during an investigation is a fairly common practice, experts say. But Stephen M. Davis, the associate director of the Harvard Law School Programs on Corporate Governance said that from an investor's perspective, if this is the path Walmart was taking, then the question was not whether it was commonplace but whether it was sufficient.
"When you have a company like Walmart that is so important to investor portfolios, to the consumer world and to the labor market," Mr. Davis said, "you may need to be more open than the common company, to restore trust."
—By Elizabeth A. Harris, The New York Times. Jack Begg and Susan Beachy contributed research.