Some Russian legislators have proposed barring six major consulting and accounting firms from "aggressor countries" — Deloitte, Ernst & Young, KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Boston Consulting Group and McKinsey — from doing business in Russia.
Senior government officials, including Mr. Putin, call almost daily for Russia to resurrect industries like domestic airplane production that withered under Western competition after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Mr. Putin's emphasis on sparing Russian consumers came after news reports that as many as 27,000 Russian tourists had been stranded overseas in recent weeks after four large travel agencies went bankrupt. Their collapse was linked to a ban imposed informally in April, blocking anyone working in law enforcement — about four million Russians — from vacationing abroad.
Read MoreObama: 'Short of going to war' we're constrained on Russia
There were mixed reports from Ukraine on Tuesday about the fighting there. The government said its armed forces were not trying to storm rebel-held cities like Donetsk, but were preparing to free them from the grip of militias. The government says its army has encircled Donetsk, but there were reports of setbacks, including desertions and retreats along the Russian border.
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said Monday evening that its observer mission had negotiated a humanitarian corridor into Russia for 437 Ukrainian soldiers who were encircled by rebel forces. The 72nd Mechanized Infantry Brigade had been "surrounded by separatists and left without ammunition, fuel and food," the report said.
Some Russian news outlets said the soldiers had defected to Russia and carried interviews with a few soldiers marveling at the warm reception they had received. But a spokesman for the government in Kiev, Andriy Lysenko, said that by Tuesday evening, 195 of the soldiers had returned to Ukraine and the rest were expected to do so.
Read MoreRussia flexes military muscle along Ukraine border
At the Central Officers' House of the Ukrainian armed forces in Kiev, dozens of wives, mothers and sisters of soldiers from the southern Ukrainian city of Mykolaiv have gone to Kiev to petition the government. They say their relatives in the 79th Airborne Brigade have been encircled near the Russian border for weeks and are being shelled from the Russian side.
"My brother called me the other day, he was running, and he said, 'They're bombing us, they're bombing us from Russia,' " said Marina Bershadskaya, 35, who said her brother Sergey drove a supply truck to the brigade and then was stuck there when the unit was encircled. Russia has repeatedly denied shelling across the border.
—By Neil MacFarquhar and Andrew Roth, The New York Times