The European Union threatened Russia with new trade sanctions if Moscow fails to start reversing its action in Ukraine, but sharp divisions among leaders at a summit in Brussels left the timing of any measures uncertain.
After a lengthy briefing by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, who warned "full-scale war" was imminent if Russian troops continued an advance in support of pro-Moscow rebels, the EU leaders agreed on Sunday to have officials draw up within a week a list of new measures that could hit a range of sectors.
But anxiety about the impact of sanctions on their own sluggish economies - and their access to Russian energy supplies - meant a divided EU could not agree to impose firm deadlines or precise conditions on President Vladimir Putin. He denies his forces are involved, in the face of substantial evidence.
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The European Council called on Russia "to immediately withdraw all its military assets and forces from Ukraine" and urged a ceasefire. The leaders asked the EU's executive arm, the Commission, to prepare proposals on new sanctions for them to review within a week, including measures that would penalize any person or body which dealt with Ukraine's eastern separatists.