European shares closed flat to lower on Monday as investors weighed worse-than-expected manufacturing data against tensions in Ukraine.
Most major country bourses closed down, but volumes were light because of U.S. markets being shut for Labor Day.
The exception to the downward trend was the Swiss Market Index (SMI), which closed around 1 percent higher. The benchmark index was boosted by a rise in shares of Novartis, which released promising data regarding a new drug to treat heart disease. The pharmaceutical giant's shares ended roughly 4.3 percent higher.