The House is set to pass legislation that would for the first time give the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Lawmakers scheduled debate and vote on the bill for Wednesday evening.
The broadly popular legislation passed the House last summer but faced a veto threat from then-President George W. Bush and didn't get a vote in the Senate.
Now supporters see their best chance yet to pass it into law. President Barack Obama, who has spoken of struggling to kick his cigarette habit, was a co-sponsor while in the Senate.
The bill would not let the FDA outlaw tobacco or nicotine, but would crack down on flavored cigarettes and give the agency authority over cigarette contents.