Catalonia will hold a referendum on independence from Spain next year whether or not the central government in Madrid agrees to one, the region's head Carles Puigdemont said on Wednesday.
Spain's regional elections dealt a blow to the opposition Socialists, but failed to signal a clear path to avoid a third vote in December.
Spain's acting prime minister Mariano Rajoy said on Thursday he had taken a "decisive step" towards forming a government by agreeing to a pact with a smaller rival.
The world is changing rapidly but central banks have the right leadership to navigate the markets, William Rhodes says.
The biggest bar to implementing necessary structural reforms is the rise in political populism in Europe and the U.S., the Spanish economy minister said on Thursday.
Political uncertainty over a corruption scandal and revived concerns over the economic health of the euro zone forced the Spanish Treasury to pay more to borrow at a triple-bond auction on Thursday.