As publishing industry budgets have become tighter, more scrappy authors are taking active roles in aggressively marketing their books independently.
Fewer booksellers, more competition and the rise of electronic books collectively have put more pressure on writers to get off the sidelines and actively market their work, CNNMoney.com reports.
It's not uncommon today for writers to travel with readers, Skype with book clubs or create off-shoot products based on fictional characters.
If you're not a blockbuster author, traditional publishers often provide just a few thousand dollars or less for marketing, prompting authors to bootstrap marketing efforts themselves.
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