European shares closed largely lower on Tuesday, as investors weighed weak German data, corporate releases and geopolitical tensions in Ukraine, Gaza and Iraq.
The pan-European FTSEurofirst 300 closed provisionally 0.2 percent lower at 1,320 points. Most individual country bourses ended down.
The German DAX underperformed, closing unofficially down 1.2 percent, after dismal business sentiment data from ZEW. Economic expectations for August slumped to 8.6 points from 27.1 in July.