In the latest addition to the U.S. corporate tax debate, a new report shows Devon Energy, Anadarko Petroleum and Facebook are among the multinational S&P 100 corporations hit with the highest tax rates in 2013, while Ford, Amgen and AIG paid the least.
The overall tax rate for S&P 100 companies rose more than 5 percent, on average, with Citigroup, Visa and Texas Instruments seeing the highest rate increases, according the personal finance website WalletHub.
Citigroup's overall tax rate rose to 30.09 percent in 2013, from 0.1 percent in 2012, while Visa's rate jumped to 31.38 percent from 2.9 percent and Texas Instruments' increased to 21.5 percent from 9.1 percent.
Highest overall tax rates
Ford was the only company in the sector with a negative overall tax rate, a big swing from the previous year when six S&P 100 firms netted refunds.
U.S.-based companies are required to pay income taxes to the countries in which profits were earned, in addition to taxes on U.S. earned profits.
Recently, President Barack Obama said he wants to cut the current corporate tax rate of 35 percent to 28 percent and give manufacturers a preferred rate of 25 percent.
Last week, Treasury Secretary Jack Lew called for tax reform to address the widespread increase in corporate tax inversions—where U.S. companies reincorporate abroad to skip out on paying U.S. corporate taxes.
Highest U.S. tax rates
Lowest U.S. tax rates
On average, S&P 100 firms pay about 22 percent lower rates on international taxes in comparison with domestic rates, with tech firms paying as much as 70 percent lower rates abroad, according to the report.
In 2013, GM's U.S. tax rate was 161.5 percent, versus 18.2 percent abroad, while eBay paid a U.S. rate of 75.3 percent, compared with 5.7 percent internationally and Apple paid 61 percent in the U.S. and 3.7 percent internationally.
Highest international tax rates
Lowest international tax rates
The average S&P 100 company pays a 15 percent higher tax rate than the top 3 percent of consumers.
Using data compiled from each firm's 2012 and 2013 annual reports, WalletHub compared the firm's revenues, tax payments and deferral amounts on the state, federal and international levels, to determine their tax rates in each jurisdiction.
—By CNBC's Karma Allen