"There will be a lot of hyperbole and table-pounding, but the outcome will be incremental, not overwhelming," said Steve Bartlett, a former Republican lawmaker from Texas who served as chief executive of the Financial Services Roundtable, an industry group, from 1999 to 2012. "The C.F.P.B. isn't going away, and I've told companies that."
Business leaders sounded an optimistic note in the wake of the election Wednesday, while also acknowledging that Washington may not change its ways.
"There's been dysfunction for the last several years in the leadership of both political parties and both branches of government," said Doug Oberhelman, chief executive of Caterpillar.
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"People are fed up, and this should be a wonderful wake-up call for our leaders," he said. "Both parties should hear it, and if they don't we're headed for a really big tidal wave in 2016."
After pouring hundreds of millions of dollars into the most expensive midterm election in history, corporate donors are eager to see their agenda tackled by a party that has traditionally been much more sympathetic to big business.
"With the Republicans controlling both houses, the corporations that have been financing their campaigns for years are going to expect to see a return on their investment," said Robert J. Shapiro, who was a top Commerce Department official in the Clinton administration and is now chairman of Sonecon, a Washington economic and security consulting firm.
He foresees a big push to lower the corporate tax rate while closing some loopholes so that the package does not reduce overall revenue for the government.
American companies have also been pressing Washington for a deal that would let them bring back profits earned overseas without incurring the current 35 percent federal tax rate on corporate earnings.
Known as repatriation, advocates say it could bring back the roughly $2 trillion in earnings companies have stashed abroad for new investments or dividends in the United States. As with the rest of corporate tax reform, broad changes in tax law like this have proved elusive in the past, but President Obama has suggested a possible deal in which some of the revenue from that move would be used to help finance investments in infrastructure projects.
"There's a great desire for it, and the idea of tax reform is great, but the details are really tough," said Tony Fratto, who served in the White House and the Treasury Department under President George W. Bush, and is now a top communications consultant for companies like G.E. and several major financial services firms at Hamilton Place Strategies in Washington.
In addition, any tax break for business would be a tough sell at a time when many Americans remain frustrated with the economy and have not profited much from a booming stock market or surging corporate profits.
"The beneficiaries will be multinationals with business overseas," Mr. Fratto said. "I believe it would help the economy but it's hard to explain politically."
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In theory, new trade deals with Europe and Asia have support from the White House and many Republicans, but rounding up the votes to pass them will also prove politically difficult.
An overhaul of immigration laws is an even tougher issue because there are deep divisions within the Republican Party on how to change the system, Mr. Shapiro said, with the conservative base at odds with the desire of business to make it easier for immigrants to establish legal status in the United States.
By contrast, there is more of a common denominator among Republicans on easing government supervision of business. "Both the Tea Party types and the establishment wing of the Republican Party agree on wanting less regulation," Mr. Shapiro said.