The poll also found that 20 percent of respondents said they had "avoided visiting a doctor for a general health concern within the past 12 months because of cost concerns." Men were significantly more likely to avoid doctors' visits because of cost worries than women.
SCIO noted that about half of U.S. adults have at least one chronic condition, such as heart disease, asthma or diabetes. The findings suggest that as many as 16 million adults with chronic conditions who could benefit from health-care treatment have skipped going to the doctor because they are worried about cost.
Given the fact that "treatment costs for Americans with chronic conditions are already around $277 billion annually," the company said, if people avoid getting treatment for them, there are increased risks of complications, emergency room visits, hospitalizations and other consequences "that could potentially drive health-care costs even higher."
Those worries are not necessarily based on a firm understanding of the costs, the poll found.
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Almost half of the respondents in the survey, 44 percent, did not know what costs they would incur out-of-pocket for prescriptions drugs, such as co-pays, as opposed to what would be covered by their insurance plans.
And more than 61 percent of respondents said they did not know the costs they would face if they sought treatment from an urgent care or walk-in clinic facility.
Namasivayam told CNBC that his company's customers were "definitely worried" even before the survey that newly insured people and others with low-levels of health-care literacy would be making poor decisions related to their health.
"It's big time," Namasivayam said of those concerns. "Because you now cost more [to insurers]. You are delaying the inevitable."
"The prevention costs and the costs of taking good care of themselves is actually less than the person ending up in the ER 12 or 24 months down the road," he said. "They are going to cost you maybe five to 10 times more than the cost of prevention and the cost of care."