"I love what I do, but it's time for Chuck to take the reigns and I'm really excited about turning things over to him," Chambers told CNBC on Tuesday.
Chambers said while his own strengths are "vision and strategy, [Robbins] can and will move the company faster."
"He'll make it more seamless across many of our operations and he'll take us to faster growth than I would have done," Chambers said. "I think the company is in great hands."
Chambers will serve as executive chairman and help Robbins with "key government relations, digitizing cities, and countries, key strategic partners, etc.," he said.
"One of the most important things you do as a leader is you build a company that has one of the smoothest, seamless CEO transitions and that's what we are doing as a company," he said.
Robbins has been with the network equipment company since 1997. Most recently, he was senior vice president of worldwide operations.
Chambers also spoke about the ever-changing face of technology and Cisco's role in it.
"Digitization is coming at us like a rocket. We're at the front end of a decade run in terms of the next generation of the Internet," he said. "We're going to lead it like we did the last one."
Shares of the company have risen about 26 percent over the past 12 months to $29. (Get the latest quote here.)