Fully documented and never crashed, the "chassis 0626" is one of the most significant and original competition Ferraris in the world.
"It's hard to know where to start when describing just how important this 290 MM is," said RM Sothebys car specialist Peter Wallman. "The 0626 is the ultimate 1950s factory sports racing car."
This car was also famously piloted to victory in the 1957 Buenos Aires 1000 KM by Eugenio Castellotti, Luigi Musso, and Masten Gregory. At the end of its racing career, 0626 still had its original chassis, matching-numbers engine, gearbox and body.
"This is a car with which Enzo Ferrari was personally involved and is a fundamental part of Ferrari folklore. Its originality, coupled with its extraordinary provenance and history, which are truly second to none, can only lead you to conclude that it is one of the most desirable and valuable cars that will ever come to the open market."
A 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO Berlinetta remains the most valuable car in history sold at auction. It sold for $28.1 million in August 2014. The year prior, RM Sotheby's sold a 1967 Ferrari GTB 4*S N.A.R.T. Spider for $27.5 million, which was the most valuable road car ever sold at auction.
RM Sotheby's has established numerous auction benchmarks, including the current record for the highest-grossing collector car auction of all time, with $172.9 million in sales at a single event in 2015.
RM Sotheby's Driven by Disruption sale will be held at Sotheby's Manhattan headquarters on December 10, 2015.
Ferrari by the numbers:
Vehicles shipped in 2014: 7,255
Net revenue: 2.8 billion euros
2012-2014 compounded annual growth rate (CAGR): 11.4 percent
EBIDTA: 693 million euros
2012-2014 CAGR: 10.0 percent
Net Profits: 295 million euros
2012-2014 CAGR: 6.6 percent
CNBC's Bob Pisani contributed to this article