Preventing the display of sensitive data in plain sight — say an employee seeing a confidential record as they walk by a colleague's computer — is the focus of Kate Borten, founder of Marblehead Group consultancy and a member of the Visual Privacy Advisory Council. She recommends companies institute a clean desk policy (ensuring that workers file away papers containing customer data before they leave their desk), implement inactivity time outs for any tech devices, and switch to an e-faxing system, which eliminates the exposure of sensitive patient data on paper that's piled up around traditional fax machines.
Experts also say that tougher penalties for and more prosecution of inside hackers would also be a disincentive for such crimes. "On a general level, there can be practical barriers to pursuit of a criminal case, such as the victim company's fear of embarrassment, reputational damage, or the perceived risk — real or not — that their trade secrets will be exposed in a court proceeding," said Brooke French, shareholder at law firm Carlton Fields.
But she added, "The DOJ and local authorities prosecute these cases all the time, despite what are seen as common barriers. The barriers are low when the actions are clearly wrong, such as a hospital employee stealing electronic medical records and selling them on the black market."
While the price tag for stolen information on the black market can translate to a lucrative sales career for some crooked employees, it's a costly phenomenon for organizations once they have realized it has occurred, which is often "during forensic examination of user devices after individuals left a company," said Verizon.
That's usually too late to enact damage control. According to the Ponemon Institute, the average cost of a breach is $217 per record.
"That's just the hard costs, what you have to pay for notifying customers or any type of remediation services," said Velasquez. "The bigger, broader cost is the reputational damage that shows itself not just to the entity that suffers the damage, but to the industry."
—By Maggie Overfelt, special to CNBC.com