From there, he held various positions as a member of 12 cabinets, from transportation to finance to foreign affairs. He was an interim prime minister in 1977 and then served in the position again in the 1980s and 1990s.
He was initially a strong supporter of Jewish settlements in the West Bank until reversing course. He believed that those communities were becoming a roadblock for ending hostilities with Israel's Arab neighbors.
In 1994, he won the Nobel Peace Prize, sharing the honor with then-Israeli Prime Minister and political rival Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Peres was the Israeli foreign minister during talks between Israel and Palestine, which led to the creation of the Oslo Accords and the first time the State of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization formally recognized one another and the possibility of a two-state solution.
While longstanding peace in the region failed to flourish after the Oslo Accords, Peres maintained that the talks were essential in opening the door to communication.
He remained an iconic figure in Israeli politics and was an unabashed ambassador of optimism in a part of the world mired in conflict — drawing criticism from more right-wing party hardliners. From 2007 to 2014, he served a stint as president — the country's ninth and the only one to have also been a prime minister. He became the world's oldest head of state by the time he retired.
"My greatest mistake is that my dreams were too small," Peres lamented during a TED talk in Tel Aviv in 2015.
He oversaw the creation of the Peres Center for Peace in 1996 to foster tolerance, economic development and other peace-building initiatives in the Middle East. In a 2013 interview with The New York Times Magazine, Peres said he still hoped that a permanent peace could be achieved.
"I think and believe so," he said. "If I have another 10 years to live, I am sure that I will have the privilege of seeing peace come even to this dismal and wonderful and amazing part of the world."
"The passing of Shimon Peres, the 9th President of the State of Israel, two-time Prime Minister and Nobel Peace Prize winner, marks the end of an era," read a statement from Rabbi Marvin Hier, Founder and Dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center. "He was the last of the pioneers who helped found the State of Israel and no Israeli leader was more respected internationally than Shimon Peres. Every world leader would take his call immediately."
The Anti-Defamation League issued a statement reading: "Literally present at the creation of the Jewish state, Shimon Peres was the diplomatic, political and social innovation face of Israel over a seven decade career. Through the years, he merged a stalwart, hands-on commitment to Israel's viability and security with a dogged determination to promote peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors, including a two-state solution with the Palestinians."
The American Israel Public Affairs Committee said in a statement: "We join the people of Israel in mourning the loss of Shimon Peres... As an indefatigable advocate for justice and human progress, he earned the respect and appreciation of his fellow leaders and the global community. Indeed, his life's work was an inspiration to all who strive for peace and freedom."
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Correction: This article replaces an earlier Reuters article that incorrectly stated that Peres' death had been reported by an official Israeli news agency.