Zuckerberg sought to be allowed to serve two years in government without losing control of Facebook, according to court filings cited by the news service.
At least one board member had qualms about Zuckerberg's political aspirations, the report said. Erskine Bowles, former President Bill Clinton's chief of staff, thought it would "look particularly irresponsible" for Zuckerberg to head off to Capitol Hill while controlling Facebook, Bloomberg reported.
But Zuckerberg ultimately brought the request to shareholders, backed by Bowles' committee, as part of a larger proposal to enact a 3-for-1 stock split, Bloomberg said. By creating a new share structure, Zuckerberg could give away 99 percent of his shares for philanthropic purposes but remain in a leadership role in the company, he said in SEC filings earlier this year.
The plan to reclassify Facebook's stock — and free up Zuckerberg for government endeavors — has been put on hold, pending the results of a lawsuit where investors complain the arrangement wasn't brokered fairly.
A Facebook spokesperson told CNBC via email Friday that the company may have more to say on the report later.
Zuckerberg wouldn't be the the first Facebooker to be considered a political contender. Despite ruling out a political run many times, Facebook Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg is often mentioned as a promising political candidate. Facebook board member Peter Thiel is involved in the Donald Trump transition team.
— Reuters contributed to this report.