Hong Kong's socio-political tensions and chronic air pollution are dragging the city further down global liveability rankings for Asian expatriates, allowing regional competitors such as Shanghai to gain ground, according to a survey by an international human resources consultant.
ECA International ranked Hong Kong as the 29th most livable location for Asian expatriates out of 470 countries around the world – one spot down from 2016.
In the Asia-Pacific region, Hong Kong ranked 15th.
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Air pollution and events reflecting social instability, such as the 79-day Occupy protests of 2014 and the Mong Kok riot last year, pushed the city down, according to the rankings.
"Hong Kong is essentially a first-world city with third-world air quality levels," ECA's regional director for Asia, Lee Quane, said.
"Combined with ongoing socio-political tensions in Hong Kong, [the city] has therefore fallen in our rankings."
Hong Kong's regional rival, Singapore, continued to dominate the chart, taking the top spot globally and regionally for the 16th year in a row.