As a Democrat in an overwhelmingly Republican state, Jones would likely become one of the Democratic Party's most moderate senators. From gun laws to corporate taxes, Jones has signaled he would likely take more conservative stances than many of his progressive colleagues on an array of issues before the Senate.
A Jones win would also knock the Republican Senate majority down to a razor-thin 51 seats from an already narrow 52-vote majority. And nabbing a seat now would slightly ease the Democrats' daunting task of retaking the Senate in 2018.
It could also have more immediate policy implications. If Jones wins, he could help to sink one of the GOP's biggest policy goals: overhauling the American tax system.
"What I have said all along is that I am troubled by tax breaks for the wealthy, which seem to be, in this bill, overloaded," Jones said about the tax proposal last month, according to Politifact. "I'm troubled by what appears to be, ultimately, tax increases or no tax cuts for the middle class."
The GOP is currently using special budget rules that require only a simple majority vote in the Senate to push through its tax plan. With 52 seats currently, Republicans can lose two votes and still pass a bill with a tie-breaking vote from Vice President Mike Pence.
House and Senate Republicans aim to pass a joint tax bill by Dec. 22, before they leave for Christmas. Should Jones prevail in Alabama, it would only increase the urgency of doing so before the new year. There is no guarantee that Jones will oppose the tax plan, but other Democrats in red states that Trump won easily voted against the Senate's version of the proposal.
It will take the state of Alabama at least until Dec. 27 to certify the election results, according to the Alabama secretary of State's office. Jones most likely would not be sworn in until January, and after that, Republicans would only be able to lose one vote on the tax bill and still pass it.
Sen. Bob Corker, R-Tenn., already opposes the tax reform plan. Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine, could also decide to vote against it once she sees a final deal between House and Senate negotiators.
Looking beyond tax reform, a 51-49 Republican majority would also make it tougher for Republicans to pass any other legislation next year on a straight party-line vote. Defections within the party sank Senate GOP efforts to partially repeal the Affordable Care Act earlier this year.