Speaking to his supporters Tuesday night, Moore signaled that he would fight the result. He said that "when the vote is this close, it's not over."
Jones pushed for a "living wage," equal pay for women, health care as a right and criminal justice reform. As a Democrat hoping to represent Alabama, Jones did not fully portray himself as the "liberal" Trump and Moore had cast him as. Rather, Jones described himself as a "Second Amendment guy" seeking only modest gun regulations, and he has said he could support tax cuts for corporations while opposing the current GOP tax plan overall.
On Tuesday night, he specifically urged Congress to reauthorize the Children's Health Insurance Program, which covered about 9 million children, before he gets to Washington.
Despite Jones' record as a prosecutor, Trump repeatedly claimed that he is "soft on crime."
A Republican Party divided on Moore left Jones with a strong opportunity to win the seat. Polling going into Tuesday's election gave wildly different reads. A Fox News poll released Monday estimated that Jones had a 10-point advantage, while an Emerson College poll showed Moore with a 9-point lead.
One of the strongest rebukes of Moore came from Shelby, who has represented Alabama in Congress for nearly 40 years and said he planned to cast a write-in ballot rather than vote for Moore or Jones.
"I couldn't vote for Roy Moore," Shelby told CNN on Sunday. "The state of Alabama deserves better."
Moore lacked support from Senate GOP leaders, who said he would face an ethics investigation immediately if he got elected. Trump and his former White House chief strategist Steve Bannon explicitly endorsed Moore, while the Republican National Committee put money into his campaign.
Sen. Cory Gardner, R-Colo., head of the Senate Republican campaign arm, said in a statement Tuesday night that "the people of Alabama deemed Roy Moore unfit to serve in the U.S. Senate." Outgoing Sen. Jeff Flake, R-Ariz., summed up his feeling in a short tweet.
"Decency wins," Flake wrote on Tuesday night.
Trump, in a tweet Tuesday night, congratulated Jones on a "hard fought victory" and noted that Republicans "will have another shot at this seat in a very short period of time."
Multiple women said Moore pursued sexual relationships with them when they were teenagers and he was in his 30s. One of the women said she was 14 when he initiated a sexual relationship. Another accused Moore of sexually assaulting her when she was 16.
The 70-year-old former chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court denies the accusations.
But the sexual abuse allegations against Moore clearly became a major part of the race.
"I damn sure believe that I have done my part to ensure that men who hurt little girls should go to jail and not the United States Senate," Jones said in an address earlier this month.
The Alabama Secretary of State's office said it likely will not certify the election results until Dec. 27 at the earliest. Jones likely would not get sworn in until next month.
Jones has signaled that he will oppose the GOP's tax bill, meaning Senate Republicans could only lose one vote and still pass their plan once he is seated. That makes passing a bill before Jones gets sworn in important to Republican senators.
Republicans can still lose two votes and pass their tax reform bill by their Dec. 22 target date. Sen. Bob Corker, R-Tenn., already opposes the tax reform plan. Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine, could also decide to vote against it once she sees a final deal between House and Senate negotiators.