China's proposed second round of higher tariffs, announced early Wednesday, would go much further than its first round in targeting major U.S. export products, from cars to soybeans – and they would be tough on states that voted for President Donald Trump.
While it remains to be seen how far Beijing goes in implementing the threatened tariffs, the economic impact of a trade war with China would be felt unevenly from one state to another. So would the political impact.
Among the hardest hit would be farm states such as Iowa, South Dakota and Nebraska that rely heavily on exports of grains like soybeans and corn, along with states like Michigan, Indiana and Ohio that are major producers of cars and auto parts. Those states also turned out for Trump in the 2016 presidential election.
This graphic shows how China's proposed tariffs would affect each state:
China's latest salvo in the escalating trade dispute with the U.S. came in swift response to the White House's anticipated announcement of higher tariffs on $50 billion in Chinese goods. The latest list from Beijing included more than 100 specific products, including major American exports like soybeans, some types of aircraft, cars and auto parts, beef and chemicals.
The tariff targets on both sides adhere to a complex arrangement developed for global trade negotiations, known as the harmonized system, which consists of dozens of product categories and thousands of specific product types.
Some categories were targeted broadly, including meat (14 product types), fruits and vegetables (78 products), metals, (33 products), vehicles, (28 products) and chemicals and plastics (35 products).
Other categories were limited to just a handful of specific products within the broader category. While the U.S. exported about $16 billion in aircraft to China last year, for example, the proposed tariffs announced Wednesday were limited only to a single category of "aircraft with an empty weight of more than 15,000 kg but not exceeding 45,000 kg."
Beijing's latest round of tariffs came after the Trump administration targeted 25 percent tariffs on some 1,300 Chinese industrial technology, transport and medical products, acting less than 11 hours later in a sharp escalation of the trade dispute between the world's two economic superpowers.
Trump has argued that large trade deficits with China are a sign that Beijing is not playing fair in global trade. On Wednesday, he dismissed the idea that the escalating threats of higher tariffs amount to a trade war.
"We are not in a trade war with China, that war was lost many years ago by the foolish, or incompetent, people who represented the U.S.," he wrote on Twitter early on Wednesday.
The Trump administration's proposed tariffs won't take effect immediately, allowing time for both sides to back off from their tariff threats. Public comment in the U.S. is expected to take about two months. China has said its action depends on when the U.S. moves to implement higher duties