A museum presents itself as permanent and timeless. It's why so many sport Greek columns, sterile white walls and clean objects under clear glass. The message is that the museum and its treasures should exist beyond the fleeting moment of our visit – connecting past, present and future. Whether displaying dinosaurs or dodos, art or archaeology, the museum is our bank vault for the world's natural wonders and human achievements. The museum aspires to be a fortress against time.
The reality is that time is inexorable and relentless. Museums are locked in a constant struggle against decay and an almost absurdly wide-ranging array of natural and human threats. There's even a formal list of the evil-sounding "agents of deterioration" that museums use to evaluate risks to their collections, ranging from bugs to temperature to water to fire.
These risks are constantly evolving. War might turn a museum overnight into a looter's paradise, as in the case of the National Museum of Iraq. Market forces or colonial revenge may spur thieves to steal artifacts, as recently seen with a pandemic of thefts of Chinese art. Some are even adding climate change to the menaces facing collections, such as the Bass Museum along Miami Beach, as it prepares for rising sea levels.
For museum curators, a terrifying range of hazards could devastate the treasures we are appointed to safeguard. Tragically, fire has long been at the top of the list. As early as 1865, the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C. – "America's attic," as it is famously known – caught aflame, resulting in what was then called a "national calamity." In more recent years, infernos destroyed Madagascar's royal palace museum, Delhi's natural history museum and a history museumin Washington state, which housed rare artifacts from the late musician Kurt Cobain.
Despite the known risk of fire, reports suggest that Brazil's National Museum was woefully unprepared. It apparently lacked a fire suppression system. Nearby fire hydrants went dry.
The spark that started the fire was perhaps an unforeseen event, but the conflagration that followed was not.