The Trump administration announced in 2017 that it would phase out the program, but that decision was ultimately held up in court. The Supreme Court's schedule is now full for the year, making it unlikely that the justices will be able to review the matter this term, pushing off a decision until possibly 2020.
Trump projected confidence that the court would take up the matter quickly and deliver him a win. At least three times since the shutdown began last month, Trump said a quick ruling on DACA would force Democrats to strike a deal.
"It will be in the United States Supreme Court," Trump said of the DACA case during a Jan. 2 Cabinet meeting. "So if we win that case — and I say this for all to hear — we'll be easily able to make a deal on DACA and the wall as a combination. But until we win that case, they don't want to really talk about DACA."
On Saturday, Trump offered to extend DACA's legal protections for the immigrants, as well as those for people fleeing humanitarian crises in their home countries, for three years in exchange for wall money and an end to the closure.
But with DACA looking safe for the time being, Democrats now have even less incentive to accept a limited three-year extension. That hurts Trump, who hoped a strengthened conservative 5-4 majority on the court would boost his negotiating power.
Democratic leaders quickly rejected Trump's weekend proposal. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi called it "a compilation of several previously rejected initiatives, each of which is unacceptable and in total, do not represent a good faith effort to restore certainty to people's lives."
Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer blasted the plan as "not a compromise" and blamed Trump for taking away the protections in the first place.
Legal experts and some Democratic lawmakers noted that the proposed three-year extension of DACA protections falls short of terms discussed as part of a possible immigration deal between Trump and Democrats that crumbled last year.
Polls show Americans increasingly blame Trump for the closure, as 800,000 federal workers face a second lost paycheck Friday and the impasse disrupts government services and economic growth.
In December, the president said he would be "proud to shut down the government for border security" and "take the mantle" if funding lapsed. In tweets Tuesday, he pledged not to back down from his wall demand as Democrats flatly refuse to pass funding for the project.