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Japanese prosecutors are building a new case against him over payments made to a dealer in Oman, according to reports.
Ghosn called the arrest "outrageous and arbitrary" and said it was "part of another attempt by some individuals at Nissan to silence me."
The ousted Nissan chief was first arrested in November last year, and has been accused of misusing company funds and understating his income at the Japanese automaker, where he served as chairman.
Ghosn, who denies those allegations, was released on bail after spending more than 100 days in a Japanese prison. He has been stripped of his roles at the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi alliance, which he had formerly chaired. If found guilty, Ghosn could face up to 15 years in prison.
In a statement on Thursday, Ghosn reiterated: "I am innocent of the groundless charges and accusations against me."
"My biggest hope and wish today is for a fair trial," he said.
The Wall Street Journal reported last week that executives at Nissan had taken steps to imprison Ghosn in the hopes his arrest would stall or kill any attempts to merge the Japanese automaker with its French counterpart Renault. There have also been various theories in the automotive world that Nissan executives might have had a role in his arrest.
On Wednesday, a day before his latest arrest, Ghosn tweeted that he was "getting ready to tell the truth about what's happening." He also announced that he would be holding a press conference next Thursday, Apr. 11.
Prosecutors arrested him for a fourth time on Thursday on suspicion of aggravated breach of trust, Japanese broadcaster NHK reported.
Nissan said Thursday it would not comment on judicial decisions or processes. Shares of the Japanese automaker were up nearly 0.7 percent in Thursday afternoon trade.
Here is Ghosn's full statement on his re-arrest:
My arrest this morning is outrageous and arbitrary. It is part of another attempt by some individuals at Nissan to silence me by misleading the prosecutors. Why arrest me except to try to break me? I will not be broken. I am innocent of the groundless charges and accusations against me.
After being wrongly imprisoned for 108 days, my biggest hope and wish today is for a fair trial. I was scheduled to present my story in a press conference next week; by arresting me again, the prosecutors have denied me that opportunity, for now, but I am determined that the truth will come out. I am confident that if tried fairly, I will be vindicated.
— CNBC's Robert Ferris and Reuters contributed to this report.