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This map shows where in the U.S. a $15 minimum wage would be the most impactful

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New legislation introduced last month aims to increase the federal minimum wage to $15, which could lift the wages of nearly 32 million Americans.

Late last month, House Representatives Bobby Scott (D-Va.), Pramila Jayapal (D-Wash.) and Stephanie Murphy (D-Fla.), as well as Senators Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Patty Murray (D-Wash.), introduced the Raise the Wage Act of 2021, which would gradually raise the federal minimum wage from $7.25 to $15 by 2025. 

The federal minimum wage has not risen since 2009, although many states have increased state minimums. Most recently, Florida voted during the November elections to increase the state's minimum wage to $15 per hour by 2026. There are still 21 states where the minimum wage remains frozen at $7.25.

By raising the minimum wage on a national level, about 21% of the U.S. workforce — or about 32 million people — would see a raise, according to recent research by the Economic Policy Institute

In the map below, EPI looks at each congressional district and shows the share of workers that would be affected by a $15 federal minimum wage. Unsurprisingly, the share of workers impacted by this legislation hits the highest levels (above 40%) in districts in states that have not increased their minimums beyond the federal requirement, including Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. 

Some districts within states that have raised their minimum wages slightly, but still below $10 per hour, such as Nevada and New Mexico, also saw a significant share of impacted workers hit above 40%. 

In addition to raising the federal minimum wage to $15 per hour, the legislation would also gradually phase out the lower minimum wage requirements for tipped workers. The federal minimum for tipped minimum wage employees has remained steady at $2.13 since 1991.

Opponents of the $15 minimum wage argue that businesses will not be able to afford the higher base pay, which could lead to job losses. In fact, recent research finds that federal legislation to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour nationwide would result in the loss of 2 million jobs. The food service, art, entertainment, and recreation and accommodation sectors would account for half of those projected job losses. 

Yet advocates argue the increase is needed because wages are simply not keeping up with day-to-day costs. By 2024, a single adult will need to earn at least $15 an hour, a gross income of roughly $31,200 per year, to achieve an adequate standard of living nationwide, according to a report from the National Employment Law Project. In some areas, such as New York and California, this is already the minimum required.

The table below shows exactly how the $15 minimum wage legislation would impact each congressional district.

Impact of raising the minimum wage to $15 by 2025

State District Number of workers affected Share of workers affected
California1NANA
California10NANA
California11NANA
California12NANA
California13NANA
California14NANA
California15NANA
California16NANA
California17NANA
California18NANA
California19NANA
California2NANA
California20NANA
California21NANA
California22NANA
California23NANA
California24NANA
California25NANA
California26NANA
California27NANA
California28NANA
California29NANA
California3NANA
California30NANA
California31NANA
California32NANA
California33NANA
California34NANA
California35NANA
California36NANA
California37NANA
California38NANA
California39NANA
California4NANA
California40NANA
California41NANA
California42NANA
California43NANA
California44NANA
California45NANA
California46NANA
California47NANA
California48NANA
California49NANA
California5NANA
California50NANA
California51NANA
California52NANA
California53NANA
California6NANA
California7NANA
California8NANA
California9NANA
Oregon3NANA
Texas3318100050%
Texas3414400047%
Mississippi212300046%
Nevada116100046%
Texas2917200046%
Texas1515400045%
Alabama711600043%
Florida2415400043%
South Carolina611900043%
New Mexico212400042%
Texas2814000042%
Georgia210500041%
Texas1614300041%
Texas3517400041%
Texas917000041%
Florida2014900040%
Florida2515700040%
Mississippi412300040%
West Virginia38000040%
Arizona714800039%
Arkansas410900039%
Kentucky58700039%
Louisiana213500039%
Louisiana510800039%
South Carolina711400039%
Tennessee912900039%
Texas2015900039%
Florida914700038%
Georgia1211100038%
Kansas112700038%
Louisiana411100038%
Michigan1310200038%
Mississippi112400038%
North Carolina112700038%
North Carolina311100038%
North Carolina712400038%
Oklahoma211100038%
Pennsylvania212100038%
Texas1814900038%
Texas1912800038%
Texas2313200038%
Wisconsin413100038%
Arkansas110200037%
Florida1015300037%
Florida179800037%
Florida511900037%
Georgia810600037%
Idaho213300037%
Kentucky110300037%
Mississippi311400037%
Texas111100037%
Texas3013900037%
Texas512400037%
Alabama210100036%
Alabama310400036%
Alabama49700036%
Arizona312700036%
Florida118300036%
Florida2614000036%
Georgia111000036%
Georgia911200036%
Indiana712600036%
Kentucky211600036%
Kentucky612700036%
Louisiana312000036%
Missouri810200036%
Ohio1110900036%
Ohio1311500036%
Ohio314100036%
Ohio911600036%
Oklahoma312000036%
Oklahoma513400036%
Texas2712600036%
Georgia1410800035%
Missouri711800035%
Nevada411500035%
North Carolina1111000035%
North Carolina811400035%
Texas1311500035%
West Virginia18800035%
Alabama19800034%
Arkansas312200034%
Florida1910600034%
Georgia1010800034%
Kansas411400034%
New Mexico111500034%
New Mexico310300034%
North Carolina1011300034%
North Carolina1312000034%
North Carolina511200034%
Ohio69500034%
Ohio711100034%
Oklahoma412000034%
Pennsylvania1210400034%
South Carolina39700034%
Tennessee19900034%
Texas1712600034%
Florida2111200033%
Florida39800033%
Florida69800033%
Georgia412000033%
Idaho111900033%
Kansas211000033%
Kentucky311800033%
Missouri111700033%
Missouri410600033%
MontanaStatewide15500033%
Nebraska39700033%
North Carolina611400033%
Pennsylvania159800033%
Pennsylvania1610000033%
Utah311200033%
Alabama510000032%
Florida110000032%
Florida1511300032%
Florida2712800032%
Georgia1311600032%
Iowa411800032%
Michigan58800032%
Missouri511800032%
North Carolina1214600032%
Ohio410300032%
Oklahoma112300032%
Pennsylvania1310000032%
Pennsylvania810100032%
South Carolina410600032%
South Carolina59800032%
Texas1111200032%
Utah211100032%
West Virginia28200032%
Wisconsin311200032%
WyomingStatewide8800032%
Arkansas210600031%
Florida1411900031%
Florida1610000031%
Florida1810000031%
Florida28500031%
Georgia39800031%
Georgia511800031%
Indiana210200031%
Iowa111800031%
Iowa211400031%
Michigan18800031%
Michigan149200031%
Ohio1010100031%
Ohio810400031%
Pennsylvania1111100031%
Pennsylvania710600031%
South DakotaStatewide13000031%
Texas410000031%
Utah110700031%
Florida88800030%
Indiana310400030%
Indiana89700030%
Louisiana110800030%
Louisiana611300030%
Michigan48800030%
Nebraska19800030%
Nevada210400030%
Ohio510400030%
Pennsylvania149100030%
Pennsylvania310200030%
Pennsylvania99600030%
Tennessee39300030%
Tennessee410800030%
Texas1410200030%
Virginia310400030%
Wisconsin810700030%
Arizona47800029%
Florida139400029%
Indiana410200029%
Indiana69500029%
Kentucky49900029%
Michigan210000029%
Nevada311500029%
North Carolina99800029%
Ohio19900029%
Pennsylvania1010500029%
Pennsylvania1810100029%
South Carolina29600029%
Tennessee29800029%
Texas369500029%
Utah411200029%
Virginia69900029%
Virginia98000029%
Wisconsin610300029%
Wisconsin79600029%
Florida229900028%
Florida710600028%
Georgia711100028%
Hawaii29500028%
Indiana99800028%
Michigan39600028%
Michigan69300028%
Missouri69800028%
South Carolina110100028%
Tennessee511500028%
Tennessee69300028%
Tennessee78600028%
Texas1210800028%
Texas3211500028%
Texas611200028%
Texas810300028%
Virginia410100028%
Wisconsin19700028%
Arizona28400027%
DelawareStatewide12100027%
Florida128300027%
Georgia1110200027%
Indiana18500027%
Iowa311300027%
Maine27600027%
Michigan128800027%
Missouri310000027%
Nebraska29100027%
North Carolina210200027%
Ohio159300027%
Ohio28900027%
Pennsylvania59200027%
Pennsylvania69600027%
Texas2110900027%
Texas3110800027%
Texas711000027%
Virginia58600027%
Wisconsin210900027%
Alabama68200026%
Arizona911200026%
Florida239500026%
Kansas310100026%
Michigan108300026%
Michigan77900026%
New York227800026%
New York237800026%
North Carolina411900026%
Ohio169000026%
Tennessee88100026%
Texas210700026%
Texas259000026%
Washington48400026%
AlaskaStatewide8600025%
Hawaii19700025%
Michigan88700025%
Michigan98800025%
New York268300025%
North DakotaStatewide9500025%
Oregon28300025%
Texas1010800025%
Texas2411200025%
Virginia28300025%
Colorado37900024%
Minnesota87000024%
New York217200024%
Ohio129100024%
Ohio148200024%
Oregon48000024%
Pennsylvania178300024%
VermontStatewide7400024%
Wisconsin58800024%
Florida48600023%
Minnesota17900023%
Minnesota77300023%
New Hampshire18000023%
New York258000023%
Texas2610400023%
Arizona16300022%
Arizona87400022%
Colorado57400022%
Indiana58300022%
Maine17200022%
New Hampshire27300022%
New York247200022%
Pennsylvania18000022%
Rhode Island25700022%
Virginia78300022%
United States.3218100021%
Arizona57500021%
Georgia68200021%
New York196600021%
Pennsylvania47500021%
Rhode Island15500021%
Texas229300021%
Virginia17900021%
Arizona67400020%
Colorado78400020%
Missouri27200020%
New York207300020%
New York276800020%
Texas38700020%
Colorado18800019%
Colorado47400019%
Colorado67800019%
Michigan116800019%
Virginia118100019%
Washington55700019%
Colorado27500018%
New York185600017%
Virginia107100017%
Minnesota65700016%
Washington64500016%
Minnesota25600015%
Virginia86800015%
Washington104700015%
Oregon55200014%
Washington34200014%
Washington24600013%
New York173500010%
Washington8270008%
Minnesota4240007%
New York14280007%
Washington1250007%
Illinois12180006%
New Jersey2190006%
New York6220006%
Illinois17150005%
New Jersey1170005%
New York13210005%
New York15160005%
New York7180005%
Oregon1210005%
Connecticut2130004%
Illinois13120004%
Illinois15110004%
Illinois4140004%
Maryland1150004%
Maryland4160004%
Maryland6140004%
Massachusetts3160004%
Massachusetts9120004%
Minnesota3130004%
New Jersey3120004%
Connecticut390003%
District of Columbia98100003%
Illinois180003%
Illinois10110003%
Illinois11110003%
Illinois14100003%
Illinois16100003%
Illinois1890003%
Illinois2110003%
Illinois3110003%
Illinois5120003%
Illinois690003%
Illinois8100003%
Illinois9110003%
Maryland2110003%
Maryland3110003%
Maryland5130003%
Maryland8130003%
Massachusetts190003%
Massachusetts2110003%
Massachusetts4110003%
Massachusetts5100003%
Massachusetts6130003%
Massachusetts7140003%
Massachusetts8120003%
Minnesota5120003%
New Jersey10100003%
New Jersey12100003%
New Jersey4110003%
New Jersey5100003%
New Jersey6110003%
New Jersey7100003%
New Jersey8140003%
New Jersey9110003%
New York1100003%
New York10110003%
New York11110003%
New York16130003%
New York2120003%
New York390003%
New York4100003%
New York5110003%
New York8100003%
New York9110003%
Connecticut180002%
Connecticut480002%
Connecticut590002%
Illinois780002%
Maryland780002%
New Jersey1190002%
New York12100002%
Washington750001%
Washington950001%
VIDEO3:3103:31
Here are both sides of the $15 minimum wage debate