Investors expect Trump's proposals to deport illegal immigrants, cut free-trade deals and unleash large fiscal stimulus measures will boost U.S. inflation.
The dollar also extended gains against the Chinese yuan and Mexican peso to historic levels on expectations that emerging markets will suffer most if Trump turns his protectionist rhetoric into action.
"Everybody loves U.S. assets, so hence why the emerging markets currencies and equities and obviously their own bonds are all under pressure," said Dean Popplewell, chief currency strategist at Oanda in Toronto.
"We continue to see the squeeze in emerging markets. Certainly people will want to move their capital, stateside at the moment, and with higher rates and reflation and inflation U.S. Treasuries will eventually be coveted," he added.
China fixed the yuan another 0.2 percent lower at 6.8120 per dollar and less tightly controlled offshore rates reached as high as 6.85, pointing to expectations of more losses. It was the lowest for the yuan against the dollar in six years.
The Mexican peso sank 3 percent to a record low of 21.395 per dollar.