However, Mr Sherwood has faced questions internally from senior executives since being called to appear before a UK parliamentary committee on the bank's role in advising Sir Philip Green over the retail magnate's ill-fated sale of BHS, according to people familiar with the matter.
Mr Sherwood was among several senior executives who helped Sir Philip sell BHS to a consortium led by Dominic Chappell, a former bankrupt, about a year before the 88-year-old department store collapsed in April.
He denied his departure was linked to the BHS controversy. "I've been talking to Lloyd since well before that about what I want to do next," he told the Financial Times. "He has spent most of his time trying to persuade me to stay."
"I didn't want to have anything out there before I left. On Philip Green, I wish we hadn't been involved and I certainly don't think we did much wrong," he said. "It is one blip in a 30-year career and it really played no part in my decision."
A former fixed-income trader, Mr Sherwood has regularly been one of the highest-paid employees at Goldman, earning $21m last year. He said his departure was "entirely amicable", adding: "There are so many great people here and they are already picking over my job".
Last week, Goldman disclosed that Mr Sherwood had sold $184,810 worth of shares in the bank, leaving him with 361,978 shares, worth $76.1m at Friday's closing price.
Mr Sherwood has been paid almost $95m in the past eight years, US regulatory filings show. He had a 0.5 per cent stake in Goldman, worth about £90m, when it floated in 1999. "I stopped working for money a long time ago … when we went public," he said. He would not disclose the financial terms of his departure but said he hoped he would receive a bonus for 2016 as "I worked the full year".
Mr Sherwood listed his proudest achievement as the "Europeanisation of the firm", which he said had shifted from a "tiny" and lossmaking arm of the bank when he joined it to one generating 30 per cent of global revenues and matching its US profit margins.
"As far as Brexit is concerned, I wish that hadn't happened," he said. "As you know, we were very much in the Remain camp … We will readjust, we will have to do what we want. I hope it will be favourable to the UK and we are able to keep a lot of people here."