Opening more federal lands and waters to oil and gas drilling is a pillar of President-elect Donald Trump's plan to make the United States energy independent, but he probably won't see the results while he's in office.
In many cases, oil and gas would not start flowing from government-administered territory until after Trump wrapped up his time in office — even if he were to win a second term.
Trump has vowed to streamline permits to drill on federal land — a process that already started under President Barack Obama — but challenges would prevent quick and significant production from government land. Those include the years-long process of starting offshore projects, local and state opposition to drilling, and uncertainty over the path of currently depressed oil prices.
Market forces have far more influence on overall drilling activity than government policy, so it's questionable to draw a direct link between a president's views and output on nonfederal lands. For example, oil and gas production surged by 4 million barrels a day during Obama's first seven years in office, even though many oilmen consider him no friend to the industry.
But the White House can attempt to boost activity on government land, and there are three areas where oil and gas production is prohibited or limited: the waters of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and parts of the Lower 48 states.
Most oil production on federal territory comes from offshore drilling in the central and western Gulf of Mexico. There are smaller reserves of oil and gas off the East and West coasts and in the Arctic waters north of Alaska.