However, today's ruling could lead to further delays in Brexit negotiations.
It is thought that between 60 and 80 Labour MPs have intentions to vote against the triggering of Article 50, despite calls from party leader Jeremy Corbyn to honour the referendum result.
"What I'm saying to all of my MPs is we've supported the principle of holding the referendum, the referendum was held, it delivered a result - I don't think it's right to block Article 50 negotiations," Corbyn told the BBC on Friday.
The result also faces opposition from dissidents from the Liberal Democrats, the Scottish National Party and Northern Ireland's Social Democrat and Labour Party, many of whom believe it would be unjust to enact Brexit proceedings given the demands of their constituents.
Tim Farron, leader of the Liberal Democrats, said that the party would not vote for Article 50 unless the U.K.'s final Brexit deal was opened up to a vote by the British public.
Scotland's SNP has also vowed to put forward 50 "serious and substantive" amendments to U.K. government legislation, despite welcoming the Supreme Court's ruling.
June's referendum saw 51.9 percent of Britons vote to leave the EU, while 48.1 percent opted to remain. However, Scotland, Northern Ireland and parts of the South of England voted overwhelmingly to remain as part of the 28-country bloc.
The ruling comes exactly one week after May sought to provide clarity on Britain's future outside of the E.U.
In a speech held in London last Tuesday, May reiterated her intentions for a speedy exit and told an audience of diplomats and officials that Britain would leave the single market and develop a "truly global Britain".
She also said that government would seek approval from both houses of parliament on Britain's final deal with the EU – a vote which is independent of today's result.
May has previously stated intentions to trigger Article 50 by March 2017, starting the two year negotiation period with the EU.