A large tax refund may feel like free money, but it isn't.
As of March 17, the Internal Revenue Service has issued 62.5 million refunds, averaging out to $2,931. The federal agency expects to receive more than 153 million tax returns this season.
Many tax refund recipients are putting that money to work.
About a third of taxpayers getting a refund expect to save or invest the money, while nearly three in 10 will pay down debt, according to Bankrate.com.
Here's the bad news: If the IRS sends you a huge check this spring, it means you've likely overpaid on taxes throughout the year.
"A large refund from the IRS may seem like an advantage, but it isn't the best or most effective use of your cash flow," said Tim Steffen, director of financial planning at Robert W. Baird & Co.
"You're basically giving the IRS an interest-free loan," he said.
If you're an employee, your employer gave you a Form W-4 when you were hired, which you can adjust to make sure the right amount of income tax is withheld from your paycheck.
On the form, you'll make note of your spouse, your dependents and your filing status; these are your "personal allowances." The more allowances you have, the less tax will be withheld.
"Some people read the form and think, 'I'm married and have three kids,'" said Cari Weston, director of tax practice and ethics at the American Institute of CPAs. "They end up with five allowances and owe substantial taxes at the end of the year."
The IRS has a calculator to help you figure out the correct withholding.
The safest course to avoid owing a large amount at tax time is to fill out your W-4 as "single" or "married but withhold at higher single rate" and take no personal allowances.
However, this may also set you up for having excess taxes withheld throughout the year — leading to that large refund in the spring.
There's no denying the feel-good factor of getting cash back.
"Psychologically, it's not a terrible thing to have a little bit of a refund," said Jeffrey Levine, chief retirement strategist at Ed Slott and Co. in Rockville Centre, New York. "But if you overpay throughout the year, it's not the right move."
Here's how to evaluate your withholding and make sure it's just right for you.
Calculating your withholding is complicated if you have multiple sources of income: distributions from retirement accounts or cash from a rental property. You'll need to make estimated quarterly tax payments in those cases, Steffen said.
"Work with a CPA to do a projection and figure out what your tax liability will be at the end of the year," he said. "In a perfect scenario, you'll have a balance due when you file your return, but not one that's large enough to create a penalty."