Republicans will now have to live with their choice to replace parts of the Affordable Care Act, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said on Thursday.
"The American people now have to judge them by how they have acted, not by how we've characterized what they stand for. Now they are on record," she said.
Earlier, the Republican proposal passed the House by a vote of 217 to 213. All 193 Democrats voted against the bill. They were joined by 20 Republicans who voted "no."
The GOP-sponsored bill now goes to the Senate, where approval could prove more difficult as Republicans hold a slimmer majority in that chamber.
Pelosi said Democrats will make sure the public is aware of who voted in favor of the bill.
"When you know the facts and you care about people, you can't possibly vote for the bill that they voted for today. So ... either they don't know, they don't care or both," Pelosi said.
An earlier effort to vote on the bill was aborted in late March when GOP leaders saw that it would fail to win enough support to pass it. Before that failed effort, the CBO projected the bill would lead to 24 million more Americans without health insurance over a decade, and insurance plan premium rates up to 20 percent higher than Obamacare rates would be in 2018 before dropping.
Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer said Americans will hold those who voted "yes" accountable.
"The majority of the House of Representatives was opposed to this bill, unfortunately a few of them did not vote against this bill," Hoyer said.
"You know that, and I know that," he said.
— CNBC's Jacob Pramuk and Dan Mangan contributed to this report.