Jones, a Holocaust denier and self-described former leader of the American Nazi Party, won the nomination by running as the sole candidate in Tuesday's GOP primary for the 3rd District outside Chicago.
Jones, 70, will try to unseat the incumbent, Rep. Dan Lipinski, who narrowly edged challenger Marie Newman in the Democratic primary.
The 51-year-old Lipinski will be a strong favorite to retain the seat, which he has held since 2005, and which his father previously held.
The state Republican Party has said it wants nothing to do with Jones, who became the GOP's standard-bearer in the district after five prior failed attempts to win the nomination.
"Even if only myself and my wife voted for me, I'd win the primary because the Republican Party screwed up big time," Jones told The New York Times.
The party, which was not able to find anyone to run against Jones in the primary, says it will try to get an independent to run in the race.
"Arthur Jones is not a real Republican — he is a Nazi whose disgusting, bigoted views have no place in our nation's discourse," Illinois GOP Chairman Tim Schneider said in a statement.