The plastic drinking straw, one of the smallest components in the mountain of trash remaining after the typical fast-food meal, has become an unlikely battleground in the war on waste.
The vote is just the latest shot in a growing backlash against excessive and hard-to-recycle packaging in the fast-food industry, whether it's plastic wrap, plastic foam cups, boxes, carryout bags or trays. The trash pile keeps growing.
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"It's terrible and it only seems like it is getting worse," said Beth Terry, author of Plastic-Free: How I Kicked the Plastic Habit and How You Can Too.
All told, the nation produced 258 million tons of municipal solid waste in 2014, compared to 88 million tons in 1960, based on the most recent data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. And almost a quarter of it was various containers and packaging.
McDonald's, citing big efforts already underway to reduce waste and promote recycling, is recommending shareholders vote against the straw study proposal.
"We continue to work to find a more sustainable solution for plastic straws globally," the chain said in a statement Monday. "In the meantime, we have adopted compostable straws in certain markets to meet regulations while we work with packaging experts to develop a planet-friendly, cost-effective answer for all McDonald's restaurants."
A group called SumOfUs wants quicker action. It said it has collected more than 480,000 names on an online petition so far calling on McDonald's to end use of plastic straws. The group estimates McDonald's hands out millions of single-use plastic straws a day.
"Straws are an important issue because, for the most part, we can do without them," said Sondhya Gupta, a London-based senior campaigner for SumOfUs. "You just get them popped into a drink without thinking about them. They are small and they are light so they are difficult to recycle."
The consumer organization cites an academic journal story that appeared last year estimating only 9% of plastics ever produced were recycled.
If McDonald's were to ban plastic straws, it wouldn't be alone. Alaska Airlines just said it is eliminating plastic straws on its flights. A few cities, mostly in California, have imposed bans.
While McDonald's contemplates action in the U.S., it is moving ahead in the United Kingdom. It is replacing plastic straws with paper versions in some restaurants in a test this month.
"Additionally, customers have told us that they want to have to ask for a straw, so we're acting on that and moving them behind the counter," said Paul Pomroy, CEO of McDonald's UK. "Together with our customers we can do our bit for the environment and use fewer straws."
McDonald's points out, too, that it has already pledged to make all customer packaging from renewable, recycled, or certified sources by 2025, up from 50%. It will also institute recycling at all its restaurants by 2025, up from 10%.
Activists like an author Terry salute McDonald's moves, but at the same time, they say the losing ground on other fronts.
For instance, the current food industry trend of promoting home delivery also means more boxes and additional packaging. "The more progress we make, the more we fall behind," said Terry, based in Oakland, Calif.
"Things are beginning change, but the pace is still too slow," said Eric Goldstein, senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council.
Pressure for change is building, however, forcing more food companies to talk about their efforts to be sustainable.
Some 15% of global food and drink launches mentioned environmentally-friendly packaging in the 12 months leading up to May last year, up from 11% four years previously, according to the global market research firm Mintel.
While McDonad's wrestles with straws, other chains are taking action in different ways.
Besides groups, pressure to cut waste is also coming directly from consumers. In the U.S., 78% of adult food shoppers surveyed said brands should work to make packaging more environmentally responsible, Mintel said.
About a third of diners say they actively seek out restaurants that offer environmentally-friendly disposable packaging and avoid those that don't, found tracking firm Technomic. More than half say they're willing to pay more for environmentally-friendly packaging.
Other experts, however, have their doubts.
Tom O'Guinn, a University of Wisconsin expert on consumer behavior, said packaging issues aren't enough to sway diners' decisions on where to eat.
"The average American doesn't care lot about this," he said. "People don't want to sit there and think, 'Gee, this is a slight improvement in packaging.'"
But Terry, who says she has weaned herself down to consumption of about two pounds of plastic a year, said any progress is good -- even if it's just about straws.
"We are not going to solve this problem all at once," she said.