The simultaneous filings extend the protracted battle between Uber and Lyft, which as fierce competitors have often rolled out identical services and matched each other's prices.
Uber's most recent valuation was $76 billion, and could be worth $120 billion in an IPO. Its listing next year would be the largest in what is expected to be a string of public debuts by highly valued Silicon Valley companies, including apartment-renting company Airbnb and workplace messaging firm Slack.
Uber's debut will be a test of investor tolerance for legal and workplace controversies, which embroiled Uber for most of last year, and on Chief Executive Dara Khosrowshahi's progress in turning around the company. Khosrowshahi took over more just than a year ago.
Uber faces a deadline to go public by Sept. 30, and a filing this week suggests the debut will come earlier than that.
IPOs from Uber and Lyft will test public market investor appetitive for the ride-hailing business, which has proved wildly popular but also unprofitable.
Uber in the third quarter lost $1 billion and is struggling with slowing growth, although its gross bookings, at $12.7 billion, reflect the company's enormous scale.
The Wall Street Journal reported the filing earlier on Friday.