The dollar rose after data showed U.S. jobless claims fell more than expected, reinforcing the view that U.S. interest rates will rise sooner.
The U.S. dollar strengthened following Fed news after earlier hitting an 8-year high against the Japanese yen.
Renewed sales of the Australian dollar were the main move on major currency markets on Tuesday.
Sweden's crown fell to a two-month low against the euro after the country elected a minority government.
The dollar index was headed for a ninth consecutive week of gains after retail sales data added to expectations that U.S. growth is gaining steam.
The U.S. dollar hit a six-year high against the yen and sterling recovered some ground after recent nerves over Scottish independence.
The dollar also trounced the Australian dollar and several emerging currencies on Wednesday, the latest sign of a long-awaited return of volatility.
Investors bet that the U.S. economy is growing at a pace that is likely to lead the Federal Reserve to begin raising interest rates next year.
Sterling plunged on fears over the outcome of Scotland's upcoming independence referendum and the Australian and Brazilian currencies also dropped.
The euro rose to session highs against the dollar after U.S. hiring in August fell far short of forecasts.
The euro hit fresh 14-month lows against the U.S. dollar and nearly two-year lows against the Swiss franc on Thursday.
The euro steadied against almost every other major currency on Wednesday after Ukraine said it has agreed on a ceasefire with Russia.
Uncertainty regarding the result of this month's Scottish independence referendum has weighed on the British pound.
The euro sagged on Tuesday to fresh one-year lows against the dollar on bets the ECB will do more to help a wobbly euro zone economy.
The euro hit a year-low against the dollar on Monday, as investors added to bets against the single currency before a policy meeting this week.
The dollar rose on Friday, with traders looking beyond soft U.S. consumer-spending data.
Better-than-expected U.S. growth data lifted the dollar on Thursday as the euro fell amid worries about tensions between Ukraine and Russia.
The euro turned higher in choppy trading Wednesday as traders reacted to headlines that the ECB is unlikely to take new action early next week.
The dollar softened on Tuesday while the euro further struggled on expectations of soft inflation data and more monetary easing.
One analyst has warned of a crowded trade in the euro currency that could spell pain for some investors if not treated with caution.