3. Be realistic. Just as you would not pay a Mercedes price for a Chevrolet, a company will not pay a lawyer's salary to a receptionist. When you reach the maximum salary for your job, raises may only occur as the market value increases.
4. Remember that confidence counts! If you don't believe that you're worth more money, you'll have a hard time convincing your boss. So arm yourself with facts about your responsibilities and accomplishments, as well as appropriate pay comparisons.
5. Focus on selling, not begging. The fact that you have five kids or a lot of debt is not the company's problem. People get raises because they add value, so instead of pleading for an increase because you need it, explain why you deserve it.
(Read more: Hate your job? Time to get a plan for 2014)
6. Don't wait for your performance review. While the performance review might seem like a logical time to ask for a raise, that's not always the case. In many companies, salary decisions are made before appraisals are discussed with employees, so get your request in early.
7.Choose your timing wisely. The best time to ask for money is when you have completed a challenging project, solved a major problem, or taken on new responsibilities. But if you missed your goals or had a major screw-up, forget about it. And if your company recently had a sales slump or a layoff, that's clearly a bad time.
8. Consider your boss's personality. Some managers are convinced by assertive sales pitches, while others respond to data-driven presentations. When deciding how to make your case, think about what works best with your particular boss.
(Read more: 10 most stressful and least stressful jobs for 2014)
9. Just do it! Although asking for money makes many people anxious, few managers will be surprised or offended by the request. So gather your facts, rehearse your presentation, and take the plunge. The worst that can happen is your boss says no.
10. If you get turned down, don't stop there. There's no shame in asking for a raise, so if you get a rejection, don't slink away in embarrassment. Instead, consider these possibilities ...
- If your boss doesn't seem convinced, ask what you could do to merit an increase.
- If your boss says this is a bad time, ask when it might be reasonable to renew your request.
- If salary budgets are an issue, try for a bonus. A one-time payment won't affect the pay structure, so it might be easier to get.
- If your responsibilities have increased, ask for a better title. You may not have an immediate raise, but a new title will allow you to make higher-level pay comparisons in the future.
— By Marie McIntyre
Marie McIntyre is a career coach (www.yourofficecoach.com) and the author of "Secrets to Winning at Office Politics." Follow her on Twitter @officecoach.