With the pro-democracy Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) set to win the presidential post, ties between the two territories - which have improved since Taiwan's current, pro-China president Ma Ying-jeou of the Nationalist Party (KMT), became the leader in 2008 - will be in focus.
Cross-straits relations have been testy since the end of the Chinese civil war in 1949, when the Nationalist Party (KMT) was forced by Communist Party of China to retreat to Taiwan. No armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed to mark the end of the conflict and China views Taiwan as a renegade province that may be reclaimed by force if necessary.
And they could be set to get testier. The most recent opinion polls showed a double-digit lead for the pro-independence DPP's Tsai Ing-wen over the KMT's Eric Chu and the People First Party's James Soong.
Here's how the candidates compare: