The action sparked an international outcry, as well as calls for more sanctions against Russia.
But the Kremlin's foreign ministry blamed Ukraine for the incident, saying Kiev concocted a "painstakingly thought-through and planned provocation" that was "aimed at igniting another source of tension in the region in order to create a pretext to ramp up sanctions against Russia."
Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said Monday that he will impose martial law across Ukraine for 30 days, beginning Wednesday, Nov. 28.
In a statement released later Monday, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo echoed Haley's condemnation of Russia's actions in the Black Sea. Pompeo also urged Putin and Poroshenko to "engage directly to resolve this situation."
Haley noted during the Monday meeting that Trump's administration "would welcome a normal relationship with Russia."
Trump has complimented Putin before and after becoming president. During a joint news conference in Helsinki in July, Trump even appeared to side with Putin over the conclusions of his own U.S. intelligence agencies that Russia had interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
Haley did not say whether the U.S. would consider ramping up sanctions against Russia in retaliation for its "violation under international law."
But the U.S. will maintain existing sanctions slapped on Russia for its annexation of the Crimean peninsula in 2014, she said, and "further Russian escalation of this kind will only make matters worse."
The "outrageous violation of sovereign Ukrainian territory is part of a pattern of Russian behavior that includes the purported annexation of Crimea, and abuses against countless Ukrainians in Crimea," Haley said, "as well as stoking a conflict that has taken the lives of more than ten thousand people in eastern Ukraine."
She added: "It shows no signs of decreasing."