European shares closed lower Monday following a session of heavy selling stateside last week.
The FTSE 100 closed down 0.6 percent during a shortened session before the Christmas holidays, while the French CAC 40 slipped 1.5 percent. Germany's DAX and the Italian FTSE MIB were not open on Monday.
In corporate news, BMW was hit by the South Korean government with a 11.2 billion won ($9.96 million) fine on Monday, and faces a complaint over allegedly delaying recalls and concealing defects that resulted in engine fires in the country.
On Friday, stocks stateside plunged, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average suffering its worst week since the 2008 crisis, the Nasdaq Composite slipped into a bear market and the S&P on the verge of one itself.