For example, using 3-D bioprinters—which can print the structure of human tissue with biodegradable material—and stem cells, which are used to populate the 3-D printed structure—researchers can grow actually human tissue.
(Read More: How 3-D Printers Are Reshaping Medicine)
"There's already fantastic therapies to overcome heart disease, cancer and every other neurological disease based on this idea of reprogramming the software," Kurzweil said. "These are all examples of treating biology as software. ...These technologies will be a 1,000 times more powerful than they were a decade ago. ...These will be 1,000 times more powerful by the end of the decade. And a million times more powerful in 20 years."
(Read More: Electronic Pills May Be the Future of Medicine)
Kurzweil was one of the speakers at the Global Future 2045 World Congress, which is an event that brings some of the world's top scientists together to talk about the future of humankind and technology and the prospect of dramatic life extension.
The event at New York's Alice Tully Hall, was organized by the 2045 Initiative, which is a project founded by a 32-year-old Russian entrepreneur named Dmitry Itskov. The primary aim of the project is to create the technologies that will enable an individual's consciousness to be uploaded to a nonbiological host, which would ultimately enable humans to live forever.
(Read More: Russian Tycoon Aims to Make Immortality a Reality Using Robots)
_ By CNBC's Cadie Thompson. Follow her on Twitter @CadieThompson.