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With just one month left in the 2022 tax season, if you haven't already started taking steps to figure out what your tax bill looks like this year, you probably should start soon.
As we've been navigating a heated housing market since 2020, many buyers and sellers have likely made life-changing decisions when it comes to their property. Those who were able to sell their homes in 2021 likely achieved a sizeable profit given the astronomical jump in home prices. But for some people, that doesn't necessarily mean that their home sale will result in pocketing all the profits.
If you sold your home in 2021, it's important to understand how those profits might impact your tax liability this year.
"If you sold a home in 2021 and were fortunate to make a large profit on the deal, be aware that you may have an unexpected tax bill on this capital gain," says Isabel Barrow, the Director of Financial Planning at Edelman Financial Engines. " How much you may owe depends on a few key factors. Was it a primary residence, a secondary residence, or a rental property? Are you single, married, divorced, or widowed? How long did you hold the property for? What state do you live in?"
Below, Select breaks down what you need to know about how profits from your home sale might affect your tax.
If you sold your primary residence — a.k.a., the property where you usually live — in 2021, you may actually qualify to be exempt from paying taxes on those capital gains.
"If the home was a primary residence, the result is less complicated since many people will enjoy a sizable exemption on their gain — up to $250k for single filers and $500k for married couples filing jointly," Barrow explains.
You must meet some conditions in order to qualify for the exemption, though. According to the IRS website, you must have owned and used the property as your primary residence for a minimum of two years out of the five years prior to the sale. And, you can only use the exemption for one property sale within a two-year timeframe.
And if the capital gains on your home sale is greater than the amount you're allowed to exclude from your tax bill, Barrow recommends speaking to a financial planner or accountant who can help you figure out if you can account for any home improvements you paid for that may increase your cost basis and lower your tax liability.
But if you choose not to work with a financial planner or an accountant and instead decide to file your taxes on your own, you might benefit from using a tax filing service that can provide assistance along the way in case any big questions come up. TurboTax has a Live service that allows you to get on-demand advice and get your tax filing reviewed by an expert before you submit it. This can come in handy for such a complex event like selling your home.
Costs may vary depending on the plan selected - see breakdown by plan in the description below
For simple tax returns only. Not all taxpayers qualify. See if you qualify.
Yes, costs extra
Terms apply, see below for our methodology.
Other tax filing services, like TaxAct, have features that guide you through how to file your taxes if you've recently sold a home.
$0 to $48.71 federal, $29.96 to $33.71 per state (see breakdown by plan below)
Tax expert support
Yes, costs extra
Terms apply, see below for our methodology.
If you held onto your secondary residence for at least one year, you'll pay long-term capital gains taxes on your profit, up to 15%. But if you held the residence for less than one year, you'll be taxed at your ordinary income tax rate, which is often higher than the long-term capital gains rate.
As you might be able to see, there is more of a tax benefit to holding a property for as long as possible. Of course, if you're unable to hold onto the home for more than a year because of personal circumstances, don't let the tax burden deter you from doing what would be best for you; work with a financial planner or accountant to explore ways you might be able to lower that tax bill or even reach a different solution.
"If you've held the property for less than a year, short-term capital gains rates would typically apply," Barrow says. "These are generally the same as ordinary income tax rates, which are higher than long-term capital gains rates."
Barrow also notes that those who have held onto their home for many years may now be selling their homes for a significant profit. In this case, they may end up owing taxes on any gains that exceed the primary home exemption amount. Those gains would be taxed at the long-term capital gains rate, which could be 0%, 15%, or 20%, depending on the tax bracket of the owner.
As such, it can be very beneficial to keep a record of all your home improvement costs so you can use these expenses to add to your cost basis (the amount you paid for the home) and potentially lower your capital gains tax liability.
Any additional state and sales taxes owed would depend on the state in which the property is located. For example, if you sell a home in New Jersey, you won't owe sales tax but you also won't be able to deduct mortgage interest, capital improvements, or energy saving purchases on your state taxes (but you can deduct these costs from your federal taxes).
In New York, though, residents who sell their home must pay 15% of profits for state taxes and an additional 10% for city taxes (if the home is located in the New York City boroughs).
When it comes to your overall tax bill, any investments in the stock market you may have can also play a role in how big of a tax burden you have to take on this year after a home sale.
"You may be able to offset some of these gains with losses, regardless of the type of investment generating the loss," Barrow said. "This means you can take stock market losses to offset your real estate gains."
So if you had to sell off an investment for a loss last year and you also sold your home for a profit, you can use that stock market loss to your advantage to further reduce your tax bill for the home sale.
You should also keep in mind that you may owe a 3.8% net investment tax on top of any other capital gains taxes you'll owe for your home sale, according to the IRS website. Whether or not you would be subject to the net investment tax would depend on your income and tax filing status.
If you're married and filing jointly, you'll be subject to the net investment tax if your household earns more than $250,000. If you're single, you'll only be subject to the tax if you earn more than $200,000. For the full breakdown of income thresholds, take a look at the IRS website.
"To prepare for a home sale, no matter how far in the future it may be, it's important to retain your records," Barrow explains. "Save everything related to improvements on your home. Create a file with your receipts, expenses, and save them — even 20 years from now these may be important!"
It may also be helpful to speak to a financial advisor or accountant before putting your home on the market to make sure you understand the implications of selling your home given your unique circumstances (when you bought it, how long you've lived in it, etc.).
There are a few main things to keep in mind when it comes to the tax implications of selling your primary residence. First, your filing status (whether you're filing as single or married filing jointly) can determine how much of your profit will be exempt from taxes. If your profit surpasses your exempt amount, you'll have to keep in mind that you'll owe taxes based on your capital gains rate (which depends on your income), taxes based on your state's laws and an additional net investment tax if your income surpasses the threshold for it.
Keeping a record of any home improvements you've paid for may help you lower your tax liability if you end up having one. Additionally, losses you incurred from stock market investments can also help you slightly offset the gains you made on your home sale.
Of course, it's always important to speak to a financial professional or an accountant for personalized assistance when it comes to understanding your tax liability after you sell your home.